Albert Einstein

"Out yonder there was this huge world, which exists independently of us human beings and which stands before us like a great, eternal riddle, at least partially accessible to our inspection and thinking. The contemplation of this world beckoned like a liberation…The road to this paradise was not so comfortable and alluring as the road to the religious paradise; but it has proved itself as trustworthy, and I have never regretted having chosen it."

AE…at age 67, nine years before his death.


· Albert Einstein was the greatest and most symbolic person as far as scientific thought.

· Einstein was a strange non conformist.

· He was a brilliant scientist and mathematician. He was offered the presidency of Israel in the 50's.

· There are many misconceptions about him.

"To punish me for my contempt for authority, fate made me an authority myself."

· Einstein embodied scientific thought.

· What is fate? Fate is a predetermined path you have no control over. How could such a scientific man speak about fate?

"I prefer to endure all sorts of punishment rather than to learn to gabble by rote (memorize things)."

· He rejected rigid disciplinarians.

· At 5 years old, he studied the mystery of science (a compass). He focused on ideas rather than measurements.

· Psuedoscience – People believe what they want to believe. If you want something, then you do something to get it. EX: religion. Einstein didn’t believe in religion, but a God.

· He was mislabeled an atheist. He was misunderstood repeatedly.

"I believe in Spinoza’s God."

AE in response to the Pope.

· Einstein’s religious beliefs were very unique and genuine.

· Many geniuses come and go. EINSTEIN: The fact that he was able to relate to people and challenge himself made him more of a genius. What made him a popular person (household name) was because he was open, human, and not shy. He was the first person to admit he was wrong about encouraging President Harry Truman to build the atomic bomb. He died with his guilt.

· Einstein rarely slept more than an 4 hours a day.

· There’s a question to whether he was somewhat senile or not in his last days.

· He kept residence on 112 W Mercer Street, Princeton, New Jersey.

· Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany.

· Misconception: he was diagnosed as retarded. He was not a child wonder when he was young.

· His parents were worried because he started speaking late. They believed he had dyslexia.

· He was a very free thinker.

· Conformity, discipline, no original thought was not his "bag."

· He did not fit in from the beginning.

· At age 5, he started studying geometry.

· At age 11, he began learning calculus. He mastered all basic forms of calculus by age 12.

· At age 14, he read A Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant.

Germany produced so many dominant theorists and engineers. They brought forth more people in the field of science and engineering from 1825-1925 than the rest of the world combined.

This is where the thought of German supremacy evolved.

This is what drove the Germans to defeat the Jews.

· Einstein was not impressed with Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species. Darwin’s book went through many changes. Darwin got much of his information from his grandfather. Alfred Russel Wallace came up with the theory at the same time. He published his paper first from observations in Indonesia while Darwin had worked in the Galapagos, South America. Wallace was in Borneo when he began writing. But he gave his life’s work to Darwin. He was scared because he knew politically what would happen in the "only the fittest survive" became a political slogan. (WWIII).

· He was Jewish by birth, but he was not particularly into it.


· EINSTEIN’S GOLDEN YEAR WAS 1905. His work was more than any scientists’ own in history.

· His and Newton’s theories are the foundation of much of modern science.

· No one had the insight or courage to defy certain ideas like Einstein.

· Einstein could spot, build, and establish potential ideas like no other.

· Einstein was schooled in a type of school called a "gymnasium" (European for a very rigid type of school.).

· It was one of the most formative influences on his life. In it, he underwent strict discipline like a soldier.

· His family moved to Zurich Switzerland in 1885. He could not do any arithmetic or geometry, surprisingly. He failed the entrance exam to the Zurich Polytechnic Institute because he lacked the aptitude in science and math. Thus, they sent him to a 1-year preparatory school.

· Einstein was an avid violin player.  His TWO LOVES were violin and sailing.

· His FIRST WIFE: Mileva.

· He had wavy black hair, black coal eyes, and was very forgetful (he forgot his key to his boarding room often).

· He was such a free-spirited, charming, handsome young man.

· When it came to anything that had to do with science, he was rebellious. This was the second most formative influence on his life.

· Einstein’s first sweetheart was an engineer.

· In 1900, he graduated college.

· If he found a topic that interested him, he would be absent from class to research on it.

· He often tried to correct the teacher.

· In 1901, Einstein was granted Swiss citizenship. This is the year when he started working.

· Einstein spent his whole life running from the Germans. This was the third most formative influence on his life.

· He was into science and politics. His goal was to try and get a graduate assistantship. He did not succeed and he would be broke.

· Marcel Grossman and his father helped him through school. Marcel got him a job.

In 1903, he married Mileva. He got a patent work where he could only invent things. To patent things, you had to develop an invention that no one else could invent or produce.

His patent work sharpened his evaluative, valid, and realistic judgment.

· Most of his personality and success was because of his experiences form childhood and adulthood.

· Einstein rose to the top in history because of his personality, which drove him to do and think the things he did.

· He worked 60 hours a week and was constantly watched because he was the new guy.

In 1905, he reached his golden year.

In less than 1 year, he produced 3 papers:

  1. The Quanta of Light – the Photoelectric Effect
  2. Brownian Motion
  3. Special Theory of Relativity (1905), which led to his General theory.
  1. It deals with the very small.
  2. Quantum physics was born of this.
  3. It studied particles.

Later, in 1918 he continued with the General Theory of Relativity.

· By the 1920s, he didn’t like quantum physics. He didn’t like the ideas that it wrought because they were somewhat paradoxical.


  1. Light quanta- light consists of waves and particles.
  1. Max Planck – was embarrassed by his theory as a physicist. He developed Planck’s constant and was able to conclude that light was made up of waves in packages. It was the key to the "Duality of Light"
  2. In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize in physics for the photoelectric effect.
  1. Brownian Motion
  1. A man, Brown, noticed in a microscope that a pollen particle would jump around. They bounced randomly because of the energy they contained. They thought atoms were a motionless mass. Einstein said they were moving assemblages of energy (proof of subatomic structure). It consisted of discreet matters of energy.
  1. Special Theory of Relativity
  1. Many people were afraid of it and were scared to say what they thought of it.
  2. E=MC2

Einstein established that matter and energy were equivalent. He described the relationship between energy and the speed of light.

E = energy measured in ergs.

M = mass in grams

C = celerity = the speed of light in centimeters per second.

1 gram of matter has 9 x 1020 ergs of energy = the explosive power of 2 million pounds of TNT.

The speed of light = (3 x 1010) 2 = 9 x 1020

Einstein used many laws without technology to solve this.

His supreme dream was to come up with "The Unified Field Theory" or "TOE, the Theory of Everything"

Einstein believed that he was just an ordinary person.

He didn’t want himself and his works enshrined.

In 1908, he leaves the patent office and is considered a leading scientific thinker in Europe. Most of Europe believed that it was the right time for drastic change because Newton’s ideas were stagnant for far too long.

"The Annal de Physiq" publication in Germany. German was the language.

The flow of information during this time wasn’t good. Some were afraid to recognize Einstein as great.

In 1909, he was picked up by the most prestigious position in Europe as a lecturer.

He made friends with practically every world leader.

Until 1918, he held high successive positions.

Anti-Semitism rose as World War I approached.

The political climate was horrible.

1912 was the last time he taught a course in science.

In 1919, he divorces Mileva. He had two sons. The first son lived under his shadow. The second son was a loser and blamed him for being too into his research and neglecting his children.

Before they got married, a Nobel Prize was inevitable.

In 1918, his General theory of relativity (about the universe) came out. E=MC2 made him reconstruct the properties of the universe.

Einstein predicted the bending of light, relativity, etc.

In 1921, he was granted the Noble Prize in physics, which was "For the photoelectric effect and other contributions to physics". It was still so shocking.

In this Nobel Prize, he won 30,000 dromes, equivalent to $30,000.

He believed physics was a religion. He gave all the money to his ex-wife because he believed that any honorable physicist should support himself through hard work.

He lived at 112 Mercer Street, New Jersey.


Sir Isaac Newton

Newton did not publish his work about calculus first. Leibnitz published his first. Newton’s was more detailed. It was discovered that Newton was the first to have discovered Calculus.

Newton’s final days – He was the Director of a British Mint

He hunted counterfeiters. He had no modesty.

"If I have seen further than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants."

He was a little bit schizophrenic. He was very anti-Catholic and was a Protestant activist.

People associated with him because he was a genius, but few liked him.

1666 was his golden year. His work alone was more than many other scientists except Einstein. His theories were responsible for modern science.

Principia Mathematica was published. It was the landmark of physics and math.

It was also the year he published Spectral Nature of Sunlight.

Newton stole, forced, threw in jail, and held at gunpoint people for potential scientific information.

He only referenced Flamsteed. He tried to steal it from Flamsteed.

Newton was the first scientist ever knighted by the British Crown.

He pushed this through the Bubonic Plague, which came from China. Bacteria came from a tick, carried by a rat that went though Europe through trade.

Some say math is the language of the Gods.


"When scientists need an answer, they talk to mathematicians. When mathematicians need an answer, they talk to God."

Lyle Cummings, 1992