Quantum Physics

- QUANTUM THEORY – The quantum theory is essential to chemistry at the molecular level. It involves chemistry, magnetism, and all artificial partial theories.
- Quantum physics is a field of small particles brought on by Albert Einstein. It is studying about particles.

- The particle theory is a theory in which everything is made up of particles; this is different from Quantum physics.
- Matter is any object that you can touch, see, and feel.
- Quantum mechanics is a field of physics that describes the structure of the atom and the motion of atomic particles. It also explains how atoms absorb and give off energy as light, and it clarifies the nature of light.
- Quantum mechanics goes beyond the limits of classical physics, which is based on the laws formulated by the English scientist Sir Isaac Newton. It ranks as one of the major scientific achievements of the 1900s. Quantum mechanics has contributed greatly to the development of such important devices as lasers and transistors. It also enabled scientists to gain a better understanding of chemical bonds and chemical reactions.

THE HISTORY OF THE QUANTUM THEORY

YEAR SCIENTIST EVENT

1900 Maxwell Planck Discovered that light came in fixed quantities. He stated that light was emitted in definite quantities.

*
h x v* where v – velocity (Planck’s constant)

h – frequency oscillator

German physicist who introduced the idea of quanta to explain the spectrum of light emitted by certain heated objects.

1905 Albert Einstein Einstein was the first to start using the term quanta liberally.

Light is a particle and a wave because it is nothing more than packages of waves.

*
E = mc ^{2}*

E = h x v

Einstein paved the way for everyone.

1909 Ernest Rutherford New Zealander who came up with the planetary model of the atom. They were just beginning. He paved the way for discovering the nucleus of the atom, the proton in the nucleus, and the electron outside the nucleus. He took a proton gun and fired it at aluminum foil.

- He measured the deflection and found that 90% of the atom was made up of space.
- He discovered it moved in an ellipse. He measured the deflection of the protons. The repulsion between the positively charged proton and the negatively charged electron led us to conclude its position in an atom.
- 99% of an atom is open vacuum space. (Empty space).

They still did not discover the neutron.

1913 Neils Bohr Danish physicist who finally worked out the orbital structure of the atom.

orbit – Integral multiple of its corresponding wavelength.

He mathematically determined electron locations by its energy levels. (s – p – d – f) It used to be named by k – l – m – n.

1924 Louis De Broglie Came up with the conclusion *h x v = mc ^{2} .*
He was laughed at by his professors. Everyone dismissed him as a lunatic. He figured that if

*
P = h Momentum = frequency*

l lambda

At this time, Albert Einstein was busy with his general theory (universe, planetary truth) to solve the simple problems that other physicists were trying to solve. These small discoveries were a result of his contribution to physics through his three papers.

1925 Satayendra Bose Indian who came up with the statistic mathematical proof of the particle nature of light. He came up with 50 different formulas that came up with the same answer. He sent his work to Einstein, who translated it and presented it in the "Annals of Physics". Einstein then named it the Einstein/Bose statistics.

Einstein published it in 1925. He found light as a particle.

Erwin Schorodinger He came up with the mathematical proof that is the foundation of quantum physics. He came up with wave mechanics, inventing an entirely new branch of mathematics.- Everyone was proving what had already been said. He was the first person to mention endo-mensional (infinitely dimensional)..
- He guessed, predicted, and laid down the mathematical foundation for the next 100 years.
- "Superstring theory" – fundamental basis of 19 dimensions. He explained more physical properties of the universe.
- N-dimensional hypervolume"

** Werner Heisenberg**

1927 Werner Heisenberg Quantum mechanics (more than anyone else in the end). He was more like Einstein. He, too, had "style". He liked sports. But. he had a wife from a wealthy family, in addition to having classical education.

HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE

- It is impossible to measure both the position and the velocity of an electron at the same time. In order to find the position of it, you have to shoot it with something. It then changes the position and velocity.
- He used his common sense to discover this.
- Einstein disagreed/refuted with the uncertainty principle because of religions reasons.
*"God does not play dice with the universe."*He never uses chance as a principle. Rather, God wrote in definite ways. He never based life on chance.

Heisenberg had the guts to introduce new ideas and conformed ideas to his. He did not like others making him conform to their ideas. He did away with the past. Heisenberg took the first step ahead. Before Planck, everyone worked in classical mechanics (like algebra).

- Classical mechanics – you look into more definite/exact things. EX: When will someone die?
- Einstein, who was very close to Bohr, came up with quantum mechanics, which was as abstract as calculus. The only way to be exact is to be abstract: not "someday".
- Einstein couldn’t accept "someday" as being exact to answer when someone will die.
- Heisenberg wanted to make quantum mechanics fit into classical mechanics rather than letting classical mechanics fit quantum mechanics. However, he barely had enough people to accept it.
- Heisenberg got everyone to believe that quantum physics has been the fundamental proof for subatomic particles.
- Heisenberg made the quantum the primary model of subatomic particles.

An atom was a monstrosity of energy fields.

The waves in an electron is the STATISTICAL PROBABILITY FIELD. It is the probability that the electron is in the center. It’s in all places but not at the same time. It’s not anywhere but everywhere.

INFINITE SQUARE RAY – *u x v* Is the existence of the particle of an electron.

v = velocity (not Planck’s constant).

*u x v *is not equal to* v x u*. "Non-commutative"

Heisenberg hit this by chance.

He thought he did something wrong. Many scientists were trying to check this. Heisenberg was almost ready to give up because he could not prove this "non-communativity". His best friend, Wolfgang Pauli (Pauli’s exclusion principle), told him not to give up. Heisenberg got the answer going down a ski slope, where he almost died. For 3 days nonstop, he worked on it.

MOST DISCOVERIES IN SCIENCE OCCUR IN THE MOST ORDINARY OF CIRCUMSTANCES

EX: In 1980, the PCR (Plumerage Chain Reaction) was established. Because of it, they only need fragments of DNA to test it. A guy from Berkeley said the answer came to him on a moonlit drive in California, where he almost crashed. As a result of his answer, he enabled genetic studies.

**What happened to the neutron?** They had almost everything worked on. Dimitri Mendeleev had assembled the entire periodic table. He got lucky with the 8 electrons in the outer shell because of the 8 points on a cube.

Rutherford discovered protons. The neutrons were discovered to answer why atoms were sy heavy. Out of desperation, JJ Thompson sought to find the answer. There had to be something inside the atom that was uncharged because it didn’t affect the opposite attraction between the proton and the neutrons. There was no other place it could be but the nucleus.