1. Sources of Genetic Change (types of mutations)
    1. Point Mutations - changes in base pairing
      1. Base pair substitutions - incorrect pairing (A with G or C with T); affects one codon
      2. Frameshift mutations - affects remainder of gene
        1. Additions (duplications) - a base pair is added
        2. Deletions - a base pair is deleted
    2. Chromosomal Aberrations
      1. Inversions - ABCDEFGH ... ABCFEDGH
        1. Pericentric - includes the centromere
        2. Paracentric - does not include the centromere
      2. Translocations - "Jumping Genes"
        1. Homologous (transpositions) - gene(s) jump to another location on the same chromosome
        2. Heterologous - genes jump to another chromosome (if there is a trade, it is called "reciprocal")
      3. Duplications - ABCDEFGH ... ABCABCDEFGH
        1. Intercalary - middle of chromosome
        2. Terminal - end of chromosome
      4. Deletions - ABCDEFGH ... ABC_EFGH
        1. Intercalary - middle of chromosome
        2. Terminal - end of chromosome
    3. Changes in Chromosomal Number
      1. Aneuploidy - changes by number of individual chromosome(s)
        1. Nullisomy - missing a chromosome pair (lethal in humans)
        2. Monosomy - missing a chromosome (ie: Turner Syndrome, X0 females)
        3. Trisomy - extra chromosome (ie: Klinefelters Syndrome, XXy males)
        4. Tetrasomy, and so on…
      2. Euploidy - changes by entire genomes
        1. Haploidy (monoploidy) - male hymenopterans, human gametes
        2. Diploidy - typical adult humans
        3. Triploidy - An extra set (half genome for diploids)
        4. Tetraploidy…