Kingdom Protista


  1. Unifying Characteristics
    1. Mostly singled-celled, some colonial forms
    2. Eukaryotes,
    3. Diverse autotrophs and heterotrophs
    4. Many lineages apparently related evolutionary to certain plants, fungi, and possibly animals


    II.  Classification

The Protomycotes

A.       PHYLUM CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA.  Chytrids.  Heterotrophs; saprobic decomposers, parasites.  Chytridium.

B.       PHYLUM OOMYCOTA.  Water molds.  Heterotrophs.  Decomposers, some parasites.  Saprolegnia, Phytophthora,   Plasmopara.

C.      PHYLUM ACRASIOMYCOTA.  Cellular slime molds.  Heterotrophs with amoeboid and spore-bearing stages.  Dictyostelium.

D.      PHYLUM MYXOMYCOTA.  Plasmodial slime molds.  Heterotrophs with amoeboid and spore-bearing stages.  Physarum.

The Protozoans

E.       PHYLUM SARCODINA.  Amoeboid protozoans.  Heterotrophs.  Soft-bodied; some shelled.  Amoebas, foraminiferans, radiolarians, heliozoans. Amoeba, Entomoeba.

F.       PHYLUM CILIOPHORA.  Ciliated protozoans.  Heterotrophs.  Distinctive arrays of cilia, used as motile structures.  Paramecium, hypotrichs.

G.      PHYLUM MASTIGOPHORA.  Flagellated protozoans.  Some free-living, many internal parasites; all with one to several flagella.  Trypanosoma, Trichmonas, Giardia.

H.      SPOROZOANS.  Parasitic prozoans, many intercellular. “Sporozoans” is the common name with no formal taxonomic status.  Plasmodium, Toxoplasma.

The Protophytes

I.         PHYLUM EUGLENOPHYTA.  Euglenoids.  Mostly heterotrophs, some photosynthetic types.  Flagellated.  Euglena.

J.        PHYLUM CHRYSOPHYTA.  Golden Algae, yellow-green algae, diatoms.  Photosynthetic.  Some flagellated, others not.  Mischococcus, Synura, Vaucheria.

K.      PHYLUM PYRRHOPHYTA.  Dinoflagellates.  Photosynthetic, mostly, but some heterotrophs.  Gymnodinium breve.

L.       PHYLUM RHODOPHYTA.  Red algae.  Photosynthetic, nearly all marine, some freshwater.  Porphyra.  Bonnemaisonia, Euchema.

M.     PHYLUM PHAEOPHYTA.  Brown algae.  Photosynthetic, nearly all temperate or marine waters.  Macrocystis, Fucus, Sargassum, Ectocarpus, Postelsia.

N.      PHYLUM CHLOROPHYTA.  Green algae. Photosynthetic.  Most freshwater, some marine or terrestrial.  Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, Volvox, Codium. Halimeda.