Kingdom Plantae

 

  1. Unifying Characteristics
    1. Multicellular
    2. Eukaryotes
    3. Photosynthetic autotrophic
    4. Nearly all  with chlorophylls a and b, some parasitic
    5. Nonvascular and vascular species
    6. Generally with well-developed root and shoot systems. Nearly all adapted in form and function to survive dry conditions in land habitats; a few in aquatic habitats.
    7. Sexual reproduction predominant; also asexual reproduction by vegetative propagation.
  1. K. Plantae Classification

DIVISION RHYNIOPHYTA. Earliest known vascular plants; muddy habitats. Extinct.

Cooksonia

Rhynia

 

DIVISION PROGYMNOSPERMOPHYTA. Progymnosperms. Ancestral to early seed-bearing plants; extinct.

Archaeopteris

 

DIVISION PTERIDOSPERMOPHYTA. Seed ferns. Fernlike gymnosperms; extinct.

Medullosa

 

DIVISION CHAROPHYTA. Stoneworts.

 

DIVISION BRYOPHYTA. Bryophytes: mosses, liverworts, hornworts. Seedless, nonvascular, haploid dominance.

Marchantia

Polytrichum

Sphagnum

 

DIVISION PSILOPHYTA. Whisk ferns. Seedless, vascular. No obvious roots, leaves on sporophyte.

Psilotum

 

DIVISION LYCOPHYTA. Lycophytes, club mosses. Seedless, vascular. Leaves, branching rhizomes,

vascularized roots and stems.

Lycopodium

Selaginella

 

DIVISION SPHENOPHYTA. Horsetails. Seedless, vascular. Some sporophyte stems photosynthetic,

others non-photosynthetic, spore-producing.

Equisetum

 

DIVISION PTEROPHYTA. Ferns. Largest group of seedless vascular plants (12,000 species), mainly

tropical, temperate habitats.

 

DIVISION CYCADOPHYTA. Cycads. Type of gymnosperm (vascular, bears "naked" seeds). Tropical, subtropical. Palm-shaped leaves, simple cones on male and female plants.

Zamia

 

DIVISION GINKGOPHYTA. Ginkgo (maidenhair tree). Type of gymnosperm. Seeds with flesh outer layer.

Ginkgo.

 

DIVISION GNETOPHYTA. Gnetophytes. Only gymnosperms with vessels in xylem and double fertilization (but endosperm does not form).

Ephedra

Welwitchia

 

DIVISION CONIFEROPHYTA. Conifers. Most common and familiar gymnosperms. Generally cone-

bearing with needle-like or scale-like leaves.

 

Family Pinaceae. Pines, firs, spruces, hemlock, larches, Douglas firs, true cedars.

Pinus.

Family Cupressaceae. Junipers, cypresses.

Juniperus.

Family Taxodiaceae. Bald cypress, redwoods, Sierra bigtree, dawn redwood.

Sequoia.

Family Taxaceae. Yews.

 

DIVISION ANTHOPHYTA. Angiosperms (flowering plants). Largest group of vascular seed-bearing

plants. Only organisms that produce flowers, fruits.

 

Class Dicotyledonae. Dicotyledons (dicots). Some families of several different orders are

listed:

Family Nymphaeaceae. Water lilies.

Family Papaveraceae. Poppies.

Family Brassicaceae. Mustards, cabbages, radishes.

Family Malvaceae. Mallows, cotton, okra, hibiscus.

Family Solanaceae. Potatoes, eggplant, petunias.

Family Salicaceae. Willows, poplars.

Family Rosaceae. Roses, apples, almonds, strawberries.

Family Fabaceae. Beans, beans, lupines, mesquite.

Family Cactaceae. Cacti.

Family Euphorbiaceae. Spurges, poinsettia.

Family Cucurbitaceae. Gourds, melons, cucumbers, squashes.

Family Apiaceae. Parsleys, carrots, poison hemlock.

Family Aceraceae. Maples.

Family Asteraceae. Composites. Chrysanthemums, sunflowers, lettuces, dandelions.

 

Class Monocotyledonae. Monocotyledons (monocots). Some families of several different orders are listed:

Family Liliaceae. Lilies, hyacinths, tulips, onions, garlic.

Family Iridaceae. Irsises, gladioli, crocuses.

Family Orchidaceae. Orchids.

Family Arecaceae. Date palms, coconut palms.

Family Cyperaceae. Sedges.

Family Poaceae. Grasses, bamboos, corn, wheat, sugarcane.

Family Bromeliaceae. Bromeliads, pineapples, Spanish moss.